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The foreground is crowded with hansom cabs and motor buses; the horse-drawn bus being a rare sight by this time. A steam train crosses Ludgate Hill railway bridge above. This was demolished in to make way for the Thameslink.
Blanche painted many views of London, where he kept a studio from He used a four-wheeled vehicle as an extra studio from which he could make finished pictures of the city. Does this text contain inaccurate information or language that you feel we should improve or change? We would like to hear from you. Read more. Inscribed 'J. Blanche' b.
Mevil-Blanche Prov: Georges A. According to Sir John Rothenstein, loc. Using a four-wheeler as an extra studio for he already had one in William Street, Knightsbridgehe made a great number of finished paintings and studies of the town. He evidently continued to paint London views afteras the introductory note to the catalogue of his exhibition at Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, in February which included some London views, but not this particular work states as follows: 'The London views form part of a series on which the artist has been working for several years and which he intends to continue'.
The vehicles would appear to indicate a date about John R. Day, the Manager of the London Transport Collection, writes that in 'there were still over Hansom Cabs licenced in London but there were also more than motor taxi-cabs. Both these types of cab appear in the lower half of the picture. I am also inclined to think that the buses with the possible exception of the nearest one are motor-buses - the horse-bus was virtually finished in London by the end of ' letter of 25 July Main menu additional Become a Member Shop.
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Entrance of the Gladiators
Collection Tate. Acquisition Presented by Georges A. Mevil-Blanche Reference N Display caption Catalogue entry. You might like Left Right. Natalia Goncharova City by Night c. Maurice Utrillo Church at St Hilaire c.Circus music also known as carnival music is any sort of music that is played to accompany a circusand also music written that emulates its general style.
Popular music would also often get arranged for the circus band, as well as waltzesfoxtrots and other dances. Although circuses have been in existence since the time of the ancient Romanscircus music first started as a performance by a fiddler or a flutist. The first modern circus director and performer was Philip Astleya veteran of the Seven Years' War and a skilled equestrian.
With his horsemanship skills and the addition of jugglers, acrobats, and clowns, Astley opened Paris ' first circus in Astley and was also the one who financed the theatre used for the royal circus. He wrote all of the pieces used in the circus, which were mostly intermezzos or comedy pieces.
The most common type of circus music is the circus marchor screamer. It is characterized by a rapid-fire tempo - usually around beats per minute - and melodies that contain showy features such as leaps, runs, and fanfares. It is difficult for "windjammers" circus musicians to play because of its fast tempo. Marches served many purposes throughout the course of a circus. They were often used for grand entrances and exits, overtures and finales, acts featuring wild animals, or other daredevil-type acts.
Circus marches are divided into "strains":. The galop is another popular form of circus music. Like the march, it is played at a fast, lively tempo and is primarily used for daredevil acts, such as trick-riding or other wild animal performances.
Any performance or act that consisted of fast-paced tricks or stunts would probably have performed to a galop. If the act went longer, the galop could be extended by playing da capo. The piece was originally written for the xylophone. Circus music catered to the needs of the different acts. For example, a high-flying, nimble trapeze act could be characterized by a dizzying galop or a graceful waltz.
An act containing ferocious wild animals, such as lions, would probably use a march. During that time circus music needed its own style because modern music did not fit with most of the acts that the circus performed.
This led to his quick rise in popularity as a circus music composer for circuses everywhere. Mistakenly thought to be a waltz by Strauss, it was written by Mexican composer Juventino Rosas.A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clownsacrobatstrained animals, trapeze acts, musiciansdancershooperstightrope walkersjugglersmagiciansunicyclistsas well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists.
The term circus also describes the performance which has followed various formats through its year modern history. Although not the inventor of the medium, Philip Astley is credited as the father of the modern circus. In Astley, a skilled equestrian, began performing exhibitions of trick horse riding in an open field called Ha'Penny Hatch on the south side of the Thames River.
Performances developed significantly over the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature.Circus Theme - Entry of the Gladiators - Julius Fučík [Piano Tutorial] (Synthesia)
The traditional format, in which a ringmaster introduces a variety of choreographed acts set to music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and remained the dominant format until the s. As styles of performance have developed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open-air structures with limited covered seating. From the late 18th to late 19th century, custom-made circus buildings often wooden were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, and sometimes a stage.
The traditional large tents commonly known as "big tops" were introduced in the midth century as touring circuses superseded static venues. These tents eventually became the most common venue. Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents, theatres and casinos.
This dimension was adopted by Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled an acrobatic horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks.
Contemporary circus has been credited with a revival of the circus tradition since the late s, when a number of groups began to experiment with new circus formats and aesthetics, typically avoiding the use of animals to focus exclusively on human artistry.
Circuses within the movement have tended to favor a theatrical approach, combining character-driven circus acts with original music in a broad variety of styles to convey complex themes or stories. Contemporary circus continues to develop new variations on the circus tradition while absorbing new skills, techniques and stylistic influences from other performing arts. The modern and commonly held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein.
However, the history of circuses is more complex, with historians disagreeing on its origin, as well as revisions being done about the history due to the changing nature of historical research, and the ongoing circus phenomenon. For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astleywhile for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat and displays of and fights with trained animals.
The circuses of Rome were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromesalthough circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction, and for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Roman circus buildings were, however, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends.
The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank; there were also various state boxes for the giver of the games and his friends. The circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not separated. Some circus historians such as George Speaight have stated "these performances may have taken place in the great arenas that were called 'circuses' by the Romans, but it is a mistake to equate these places, or the entertainments presented there, with the modern circus"  Others have argued that the lineage of the circus does go back to the Roman circuses and a chronology of circus-related entertainment can be traced to Roman times, continued by the Hippodrome of Constantinople that operated until the 13th century, through medieval and renaissance jesters, minstrels and troubadours to the late 18th century and the time of Astley.
The first circus in the city of Rome was the Circus Maximusin the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built completely from wood.
After being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seatpeople; it was built of stone and measured m in length and 90m in width. A fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius ; its ruins have helped archaeologists reconstruct the Roman circus.
For some time after the fall of Rome, large circus buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs. The origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip Astleywho was born in Newcastle-under-Lyme, England.
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He became a cavalry officer who set up the first modern amphitheatre for the display of horse riding tricks in Lambeth, London on 4 April Astley was followed by Andrew Ducrowwhose feats of horsemanship had much to do with establishing the traditions of the circus, which were perpetuated by Hengler's and Sanger 's celebrated shows in a later generation. In England circuses were often held in purpose-built buildings in large cities, such as the London Hippodromewhich was built as a combination of the circus, the menagerie and the variety theatre, where wild animals such as lions and elephants from time to time appeared in the ring, and where convulsions of nature such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been produced with an extraordinary wealth of realistic display.The Circus Maximus Latin for greatest or largest circus ; Italian : Circo Massimo is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in RomeItaly.
Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire. The site is now a public park. The Circus was Rome's largest venue for ludi, public games connected to Roman religious festivals. Ludi were sponsored by leading Romans or the Roman state for the benefit of the Roman people populus Romanus and gods. Most were held annually or at annual intervals on the Roman calendar. Others might be given to fulfill a religious vowsuch as the games in celebration of a triumph.
In Roman tradition, the earliest triumphal ludi at the Circus were vowed by Tarquin the Proud to Jupiter in the late Regal era for his victory over Pometia. Ludi ranged in duration and scope from one-day or even half-day events to spectacular multi-venue celebrations held over several days, with religious ceremonies and public feasts, horse and chariot racing, athletics, plays and recitals, beast-hunts and gladiator fights.
Some included public executions. The greater ludi  meaning sport or game in latin at the Circus began with a flamboyant parade pompa circensismuch like the triumphal processionwhich marked the purpose of the games and introduced the participants.
During Rome's Republican erathe aediles organised the games. The most costly and complex of the ludi offered opportunities to assess an aedile's competence, generosity, and fitness for higher office.
In BC, " flute playersscenic artists and dancers" performed on a temporary stage, probably erected between the two central seating banks. Others were enlarged at enormous expense to fit the entire space. A venatio held there in BC, one of several in the 2nd century, employed "63 leopards and 40 bears and elephants", with spectators presumably kept safe by a substantial barrier. As Rome's provinces expanded, existing ludi were embellished and new ludi invented by politicians who competed for divine and popular support.
By the late Republicludi were held on 57 days of the year;  an unknown number of these would have required full use of the Circus. On many other days, charioteers and jockeys would need to practice on its track.
Otherwise, it would have made a convenient corral for the animals traded in the nearby cattle marketjust outside the starting gate. Beneath the outer stands, next to the Circus' multiple entrances, were workshops and shops.
When no games were being held, the Circus at the time of Catullus mid-1st century BC was likely "a dusty open space with shops and booths Rome's emperors met the ever-burgeoning popular demand for regular ludi and the need for more specialised venues, as essential obligations of their office and cult. Over the several centuries of its development, the Circus Maximus became Rome's paramount specialist venue for chariot races. By the late 1st century AD, the Colosseum had been built to host most of the city's gladiator shows and smaller beast-hunts, and most track-athletes competed at the purpose-designed Stadium of Domitianthough long-distance foot races were still held at the Circus.
Even at the height of its development as a chariot-racing circuit, the circus remained the most suitable space in Rome for religious processions on a grand scale, and was the most popular venue for large-scale venationes ;  in the late 3rd century, the emperor Probus laid on a spectacular Circus show in which beasts were hunted through a veritable forest of trees, on a specially built stage.
The last known beast-hunt at the Circus Maximus took place inand the last known races there were held by Totila in In Rome's early days, the valley would have been rich agricultural land, prone to flooding from the river Tiber and the stream which divided the valley. The stream was probably bridged at an early date, at the two points where the track had to cross it, and the earliest races would have been held within an agricultural landscape, "with nothing more than turning posts, banks where spectators could sit, and some shrines and sacred spots".
In Livy 's history of Romethe first Etruscan king of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Priscus built raised, wooden perimeter seating at the Circus for Rome's highest echelons the equites and patriciansprobably midway along the Palatine straight, with an awning against the sun and rain.
His grandson, Tarquinius Superbusadded the first seating for citizen-commoners plebsor plebeianseither adjacent or on the opposite, Aventine side of the track. By this time, it may have been drained  but the wooden stands and seats would have frequently rotted and been rebuilt. The turning posts metaeeach made of three conical stone pillars, may have been the earliest permanent Circus structures; an open drainage canal between the posts would have served as a dividing barrier.It has always been the goal of all of us here at the Zerbini Family Circus to provide our audience with the greatest Circus experience possible.
It is our family tradition; it is our life. The health and well-being of our patrons, staff and performers is our highest priority. And at this time we feel we must follow the recommendations of our States Governors and the President. We must put our tour on hold until this situation has stabilized.
Events have been cancelled nationwide. And, although we could continue touring, the restricted audience size would not be enough to sustain our business. A substantial number of people would miss out on going to the circus either due to limited audience size or fear of the virus spreading.
This is not an acceptable alternative. We will return to our tour soon, and look forward to visiting your community and the many others we visit every year.
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Not Now. Dear Friends, It has always been the goal of all of us here at the Zerbini Family Circus to provide our audience with the greatest Circus experience possible. Happy World Circus day worldcircusday. Zerbini family Circus was live. Our first quarantine birthday. From our family to yours. It looks like you may be having problems playing this video.He originally titled it " Grande Marche Chromatique ", reflecting the use of chromatic scales throughout the piece, but changed the title based on his personal interest in the Roman Empire.
Generally, the march is divided into three parts. The first part contains the melody that the trumpet keeps and the several supporting parts. The second third is the section where the low brass mainly the tubas take over with the chromatic scale like role. Finally there is a trioor a softer melodic section, where there is a strong balance between woodwinds and low brass.
The trio has a part similar to the second third with a chromatic scale -like sound. The piece is written in cut time and is originally written to be played at standard march tempobut when played as a screamer it is usually played much faster.
Originally, he called the piece Grande Marche Chromatique. The march demonstrates the state of the art in playing technology and the construction of brass instruments, which allowed fast and even chromatic gears in all instruments and positions. The phrase "entry of the gladiators" is known in two descriptions of Pompeii in and is probably older. Further edits followed. In one of the H. The phrase Entrance of the Gladiators, which has existed since at least the 18th century, is also common in English.
Hermann Ludwig Blankenburg published his farewell to the gladiators at the latest in Inboth pieces were recorded by the "Great Odeon Orchestra" on a plate No. Inthe Canadian composer Louis-Philippe Laurendeau rewrote the piece, used a faster tempo and a different key and published it as Thunder and Blazes.
Americans are used to hearing the march at a much faster pace. The piece became known in the North American circus and imported back to Europe. Especially in a very fast version, it is the most famous circus music for clowns. It is also often found in the repertoire of mechanical music automatons. InAmerican publisher Carl Fischer published a version of this march, arranged for American wind bands by Canadian composer Louis-Philippe Laurendeauunder the title " Thunder and Blazes ".
Today it is known mainly by this association.
Laurendeau's version was also transcribed for fairground organs. The march receives the occasional concert hall performance, such as at the Last Night of the Proms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Music Educators Journal. Retrieved 23 February The Independent. Namespaces Article Talk.Please select all options below. Each Clown Mouth Entrance is printed on one side of cardboard measuring 9' 4" high x 9' 5" wide.
Easy assembly. Please allow ample time for delivery. The delivery date for this product is noted above for US shipping only. Please refer to checkout for delivery dates outside of the Contiguous 48 States.
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